Sumo is an ancient sport and religious practice of Japan, dating from as early as 230 B.C. While primarily performed as a sport, or religious ceremony, Sumo was a fairly detailed combat system up until the late 16th century, when 'inelegant' moves such as striking with fists, hair pulling, eye gouging, choking and kicking in the stomach or chest and other lethal moves were banned and the rules for ring matches, and formally established ranks were implemented.

*Sumotori - generic term for sumo wrestlers
Maezuma - recruit
Honchu - beginner
*Rikishi - recognized wrestler; generally used to refer to those wrestlers below the top two divisions (Maku-uchi & Juryo)
**

Jonokuchi

- first step ; Sixth Rank Division
**

Jonidan

- second step; Fith Rank Division
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Sandanme

- third step; Fourth Rank Division
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Makushita

- second-rank senior; Third Rank Division
*Sekitori - ranked wrestler; allowed all the privileges and honors of sumo; used to refer to those wrestlers in the top two divisions
**

Juryou (Jumaime)

Sekitori - Second Rank Division
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Maku-uchi

- First Rank Division
Maku-uchi: Maegashira Sekitori - senior wrestler
***Sanyaku - three orders of titled champions (Komusubi, Sekiwake, & Ozeki)
Maku-uchi: Komusubi Sekitori - pre-champion
Maku-uchi: Sekiwake Sekitori - junior champion
Maku-uchi: Ozeki Sekitori - champion
Maku-uchi: Yokozuna Sekitori - grand champion

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