Sipahi - Turkish term for elite cavalry granted a fief of land from the padishah in exchange for military service.

Effendi - A Turkish term meaning "lord" or "master" used to indicate a gentleman of rank. Roughly equivalent to a European knight.

Agha - Turkish term for "chief" or "elder brother," is a title for a court or military officer.

Derebey - Turkish term for "valley lord," this title applies to nobles who rule provincial territories.

Bey - Turkish for "chieftain," this title applies to nobles equivalent in rank to a European duke.

Dey - Governors of semi-autonomous fiefs within the Ottoman Empire.

Pasha - A Turkish term which equates to general or governor.

Beylerbey - Turkish for "Bey of Beys", meaning "Commander of Commanders" or "Lord of Lords"; the term is applied to the highest rank of provincial governor-generals.

Atabeg - A Turkish term for a governor charged with raising a crown prince.

Vizier - A Persian-derived term for a high adviser.

Khedive - A Persian-derived term meaning 'prince,' this term actually applies to high nobility.

Shah - Persian-derived term for King.

Padishah - Persian-derived term equatable to emperor.

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