Sipahi - Turkish term for elite cavalry granted a fief of land from the padishah in exchange for military service.
Effendi - A Turkish term meaning "lord" or "master" used to indicate a gentleman of rank. Roughly equivalent to a European knight.
Agha - Turkish term for "chief" or "elder brother," is a title for a court or military officer.
Derebey - Turkish term for "valley lord," this title applies to nobles who rule provincial territories.
Bey - Turkish for "chieftain," this title applies to nobles equivalent in rank to a European duke.
Dey - Governors of semi-autonomous fiefs within the Ottoman Empire.
Pasha - A Turkish term which equates to general or governor.
Beylerbey - Turkish for "Bey of Beys", meaning "Commander of Commanders" or "Lord of Lords"; the term is applied to the highest rank of provincial governor-generals.
Atabeg - A Turkish term for a governor charged with raising a crown prince.
Vizier - A Persian-derived term for a high adviser.
Khedive - A Persian-derived term meaning ‘prince,’ this term actually applies to high nobility.
Shah - Persian-derived term for King.
Padishah - Persian-derived term equatable to emperor.