I love this thread. But I am tired of being the primary contributor. I need you all to post ONE historical NPC. (well at least one....)
History is full of interesting and exotic people who can help to populate your world. They can help illuminate the range of what people think is possible for your world (or you can consider them PCs run by players not in your game). This thread is a list of people who have a great deal to contribute to a campaign. This thread should be limited to real, historical, documentable figures. This eliminates mythic and fictional people from this particular thread.
It will be nice if you would write a little one to three line summary of your entry (more would be better) and including a link about the character would be nice as well. One mini-report based upon what you know about the character. Please don't just copy and paste a wikipedia post, just put a little work into it.